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Lesson 6 – Advanced – The Paratactic Compound Sentence

It is difficult for overseas students to learn Mandarin when it comes to the compound sentences. If the clauses of a compound sentence are grammarly equal and not modify each other, this compound sentence can be called the coordinate composite sentence. Those who learn Chinese language in China should know that the coordinate composite sentence can be divided into the following categories according to the meaning relationship of the clauses.

The common category is the paratactic compound sentences, which also can be divided into three types according to the meaning relationship of the clauses. For learning Mandarin Chinese better, we will discuss them one by one.

If you study in China, when you come across the clauses describe several connected things, situations or several aspects of the same thing, we say this kind of sentence have parallel relationship. There is no need to use relative conjunctions in his type of compounds.

Here are some examples to help study Chinese better:
① 我们每天复习生词,写汉字,做练习。
② 历史在斗争中发展,世界在动摇中前进,(这是任何人也不能阻止的)。
③ 大年初一的早晨,妹妹忙着数得到的压岁钱,妈妈在厨房煮饺子,爸爸打电话给亲友拜年,我坐在电视机前看歌舞。
However, in some sentences, relative conjunctions are used such as “也”, “又”,
“同时”, “又……又……”, “一面……一面……”, “一边…….一边……”. Here are some typical examples to learn Chinese in China:
④ 这是新书,那也是新书。
⑤ 他又会汉语,又会英语。
⑥ 欢迎的群众一边唱歌,一遍跳舞。

There is a kind of compound sentence that is composed of two clauses, which has contrast relationship in meaning. For these sentences, normally speaking, relative conjunctions are not used except for the sentences that can use “而” at the beginning of the second clause. The following examples are helpful for students who learn to speak Chinese.
① 河东,是个炮弹壳“钟”,桥南,是个钢轨“钟”。
② 我们的人越来越多,山上的石头越来越少。
③ 张老师教三班,李老师教四班。
④ 在修建南昆铁路的日日夜夜里,困难一个接着一个出现,而胜利的喜悦也一个接着一个传来。
⑤ 这时他们想到的不是自己,而是正在进行的施工不能停。

The third sort of sentence is those that have the relationship of separation and combination. These sentences begin with the overall description and then separated into fractions to describe or come in the opposite way. The fraction parts and the conclusion parts are coordinating. Actually, we can learn free Chinese lessons on the Internet.

Here are some typical examples often taken in Chinese school in China.
① 来客也不少,有送行的,有拿东西的,有送行兼拿东西的。
② 两头都要抓紧,学习工作要抓紧,睡眠休息娱乐也要抓紧。
③ ……活着把老虎打死,或者被老虎吃掉,二者必居其一。
④ 中央要注意发挥省市的积极性,省市也要注意发挥地、县、区、乡的积极性,都不能框得太死。

To help students to learn Mandarin in China better, teacher should explain that the first two examples are begin with overall description and then describe separately. However the last two examples are the opposite.

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